Live Usb Mac Os

Here are the instructions to create a live USB of Tiger: 1. Copy the Mac OS X Tiger DVD to an ISO file. Download PearPC (and a GUI, such as PearPC Control Panel) and the 6GB blank disk image (for 8GB drive) or 3GB image (for 4GB drive). Download the trial of TransMac, too. Download PearPC and 3GB/6GB disk images here. To run a live Ubuntu 18.04.1 USB on MacPro 1,1, one needs to add a 32-bit EFI boot loader, here is how to do it: Make a bootable USB with Startup Disk Creator on Ubuntu. Download Ubuntu 18.04.1 iso and use Ubuntu “Startup Disk Creator” or see “Making a bootable USB manually” below. You can try booting from this drive, but it won’t work.

Considering my Macbook Air neither has a CD drive nor do I possess a DVD, I preferred to create a live USB in Mac OS X. Create a Bootable Ubuntu USB Drive in Mac OS X. As I said earlier, creating a bootable USB in Mac OS X is a tricky procedure, be it for Ubuntu or any other bootable OS. However, it’s also possible to house a completely functional operating system on a USB drive based on the Live-CD principle. The Live-CD is a complete operating system that can be run without prior installation from a CD/DVD. Simply insert your Live-CD, reboot your computer and the operating system installed on it will launch automatically. How do I write an ISO image under Mac OS? The Toast program for Mac OS is reported to work fine with.iso files. You can be extra-safe by giving it the creator code CDr3 (or possibly CDr4) and type code iImg using e.g. Double-clicking on the file will then open up Toast directly, without having to drag-and-drop or go via the File. However, programs like Mac Linux USB Loader can alleviate the difficulties of the task of booting a Linux-live USB on a Mac. This limitation could be fixed by either changing the Apple firmware to include a USB driver in BIOS mode, or changing the operating systems to remove the dependency on the BIOS.

UNetbootin (short for “Universal Netboot Installer”) is software that allows you to easily create bootable USB flash drives to install or use operating systems. This software is designed to be cross-platform and works with Windows, as well as Mac and Linux operating systems.

While the primary application of this open-source software is to make a bootable USB drive, UNetbootin can also be used with any kind of USB storage device, such as external hard drives.

UNetbootin doesn’t erase any files as it doesn’t have the ability to format your USB flash drives or external hard drive devices. The key appeal of UNetbootin is that is the simplest choice of software for applications that might seem daunting to beginners.

What can I use UNetbootin for?

With CDs and CD-ROM drives continuing to disappear from everyday life, quickly installing an operating system from a USB drive is without doubt the easiest approach.

However, it’s also possible to house a completely functional operating system on a USB drive based on the Live-CD principle.

The Live-CD is a complete operating system that can be run without prior installation from a CD/DVD. Simply insert your Live-CD, reboot your computer and the operating system installed on it will launch automatically.

You can run everything on it and the best thing is that there is no risk to the original operating system installed on your computer as no data will be deleted.

With the conventional CD-ROM in serious danger of disappearing altogether, a viable workaround had to be found very quickly. It is USB drives we have had to look toward to facilitate advances in the right direction.

In April 2017, Geza Kovacs proposed the concept of UNetbootin. It quickly became a must-have solution for computer technicians and Linux users everywhere. However, we should consider that it will allow for the installation of commercial operating systems (including Windows, among others) which is effectively illegal, provided the user hasn’t paid for their own license.

Thus, UNetbootin makes it possible to create genuine toolkits by having a full range of functional operating systems (to attempt a software repair attempt without loss of data) or systems ready to be installed. Gone is the age of the CD. Now, everything is facilitated by small USB drives that are offering increasing amounts of storage space.

Indeed, it’s fair to say that UNetbootin allows you to install a cracked freeware version of Windows.

Discovering dozens of operating systems

Other than its simplicity, one of the greatest joys of using UNetbootin is that it allows you to “automatically” install a bootable drive with a fully functional Linux system, once known as the go-to Live-CDs of their time.

As such, you will have a great variety of potential Linux release versions to choose from, which UNetbootin will download for you. The integrated support for Linux versions is impressive. The full list includes:

Arch Linux
Damn Small Linux
Linux Mint
Sabayon Linux
Frugalware Linux
Puppy Linux

For computer specialists and those seeking a troubleshooting solution, UNetbootin allows you to load the best repair system utilities, including:

Parted Magic
Super Grub Disk
Dr.Web Antivirus
Live Usb Mac Os
F-Secure Rescue CD
Kaspersky Rescue Disk

Note that some computer troubleshooting software still utilises CDs, while UNetbootin opts for a simpler approach with the use of a USB drive. The only drawback of a USB drive is that you can’t install multiple systems.

As such, you’ll need to create a small collection of bootable USB drives in order to ensure you’re set for any eventuality.

How to install UNetbootin

Kali linux live usb mac os x

Installing UNetbootin couldn’t simpler. Simply download UNetbootin from our site and then open the download folder and launch the installer. Once that’s taken care of, you can then access the software. You’ll quickly notice how user-friendly it is as there is only one window.

There are two main options to choose from to accommodate two distinct scenarios:

Release: UNetbootin takes care of everything and offers you a list of free and open-source operating system releases, as well as their various versions. UNetbootin will download and install the option you choose.

We’ve already presented the impressive line-up of possibilities from the open-source world available to you. However, it’s possible the Unix/Linux release you’re after isn’t present in the list.

As such, you’ll have to adopt the alternative solution of downloading the ISO image of the release version yourself and proceed to the following method:

Disk Image: Simply indicate where the ISO image file of your system to be booted via USB is located. It might sound complicated, but it’s actually very straightforward:

In this example, the user wants to create a version called ubuntu-10.10-desktop.386.iso bootable. It is to be installed on a USB storage medium (key or hard disk) which is the D: drive.

The user then only needs to have the ISO image of the operating system they wish to use (by downloading it from the appropriate site) and then enter the path of the file in UNetbootin. Once that’s done, simply click on OK and that’s it.

UNetbootin will take care of everything else and let you know when it’s done.


With Mac, the process is much the same, but no matter whether you’re working with Windows, MacOS or Linux, things differ very little, remaining simple and efficient across the board.

Here is a brief 2-minute presentation of UNetbootin in English, including all the steps we’ve outlined so far in regards to the software:

If you pay close attention to this video, you’ll note that the user makes the second choice and therefore installs an operating system from an ISO image. The name of this ISO file is “ophcrack-vista-livecd-3.6.0.iso”.

You’d be forgiven for thinking that this refers to a cracked version of Windows Vista and yet, it doesn’t. Ophcrack is an open-source bootable system for cracking/decrypting Windows Vista passwords.

As always, this can of course be used for benevolent purposes, such as when someone loses their password and it would be foolish to reinstall the system completely at a cost of losing all data.

On the other hand, there are the so-called crackers who have more malevolent intentions. However, the more malicious ones are usually the least resourceful when it comes to finding information to help further their aims and successfully implementing it.

Let’s take another moment to put things into perspective. UNetbootin has, from the very beginning, been designed as a way to run Linux Live-CDs on USB drives. It is this chief application that is the suggested for use, rather than you having to choose an ISO file.

UNetbootin is a real joy for anyone who wants to expand their horizons and try an open-source operating system that isn’t offered by Microsoft or Apple. Neither of these offer much in the way of freeware, even if you believe the persistent rumours that the MS-DOS code will soon be made open-source.

UNetbootin allows for the easy installation of many popular Linux release versions and allows you to experience some truly robust operating systems. These systems are far less likely to crash and are incredibly secure when compared to the likes of MacOS X.

Where to find Windows ISO for UNetbootin?

In the video example taken from SourceForge (the official site that centralises open-source projects) you might have thought the Vista version was in fact a cracked Windows release. However, there currently exists no such versions for Windows or any commercial operating system.

Pointing you in the direction of where to find possible cracked versions is not just illegal, but could also severely compromise the security of your operating system. You simply can’t count on a potential Windows 10 ISO being completely reliable and secure.

Remember, it requires a crack in the Windows system for it to auto-activate its license. In addition to doing this, a hacker can also do other things to the code of your operating system.

Many have (illegally) enjoyed reworked versions of Windows like XP LSD or Seven Titan that promise to rid superfluous elements that Microsoft tends to add to its systems.

Thus, if an official version of Windows XP could make an old machine at the end of its life plod along, an illegal version of Windows LSD (since it is unofficial and created by hackers) could give an older PC a new lease of life.

Hackers have good intentions in the vast majority of cases, but there is without doubt a darker side to it all. If you can remove superfluous elements in an original version of Windows, you can also include more malicious content that could potentially be used to spy on everything somebody does on their computer.

Generally speaking, any Windows 10 (and earlier versions) ISO file that can be found on the net cannot be seen as 100% reliable in terms of security.

Finding the latest Windows 10 ISO file, for example, is a real obstacle course. If the hunt alone doesn’t deter you, you’ll no doubt be put off by the multitude of scam sites out there that will deal some serious malware your way in a worst case scenario.

The easiest alternative is to simply utilise an internet connection, buy your license online and download everything you need to install a legal and reliable version of Windows onto your machine.

This way, there are no security concerns to worry about. However, if you are concerned about security, why not simply switch to free and perfectly secure systems like Linux?

One thing many Mac users are often most proud of is that their systems are less susceptible to attacks than Windows systems. However, Linux offers an impenetrable alternative altogether.

How to create a bootable USB drive using Linux

If you aren’t familiar with Linux, we encourage you to try it. For those who are familiar, below is the method for installing Linux with UNetbootin (with Ubuntu):

1. Open your terminal (applications > accessories > terminal)
2. Type wget
3. Type chmod +x ./unetbootin-linux-*
4. Type sudo apt-get install p7zip-full
5. Type sudo. /unetbootin-linux-*

Alternatively, you can simply double-click on the file unetbootin-linux* since it will be executable after step 3. To use UNetbootin you simply have to insert the USB drive (or external USB hard drive) and launch the software (see step 5 above for what to type in your terminal).

As always, we find the first option:

As as for Windows or Mac, follow these 3 steps:

1) Choose the Linux release you are interested in
2) Select a specific version of the release
3) Make sure that your USB drive is recognised and selected at the bottom, then validate by OK.

The other option is to use an ISO file already downloaded from the internet. The Disk Image mode is even faster and easier:

1) Indicate where your ISO file is within the system so it is bootable.
2) Check that the right USB disk (drive, hard disk…) is selected and validate.

In both cases, provided everything has gone well, this will happen:

UNetbootin advises that you reboot your computer in order to be able to test in Live-USB, or to install the new operating system.
What happens when it doesn’t work?

Sometimes, the operating system you wish to install is in 32 bits, rather than 64 bits, while your USB drive may be in NTFS and not in FAT32.

You simply need to format your USB drive (and gather your required data beforehand) and specify that you want the FAT32 format. Do this and UNetbootin will be able to install your system on your USB device.

The next step is very straightforward. Simply locate your USB drive in your browser, right-click on it and choose the format. Put a new name here if you wish (it doesn’t matter, either way) but do indicate it as a FAT32 file system. Repeat the previous actions and things should work perfectly.

Set the BIOS to boot on the USB drive

Often, your computer boots from the hard drive where your operating system is located. As such, from now on you will have to tell it to boot from USB media.

When booting your PC, press the F2 key several times after turning your machine on. You will find yourself taken to a screen that seems rather basic, but it’s exactly where you need to be in order to complete the next steps.

This is the “BIOS” of your computer. At the very top in dark blue, you will find tabs labelled “Main”, “Security”, “Power Management” and so on. To navigate through the bios, you can use your the arrow keys on your keyboard, followed by the enter key to validate your selection. Got to the “Boot” tab as shown above.

What you see here is actually the boot order of your computer:

– ODD TSSTcorps CDDVDW SU-208DB is thus an external DVD drive connected to the USB and it’s in the right place since it’s at the top of the list.

– HDD/SDD TOSHIBA MQ01ABD075 is the hard drive of the computer. In second position, if the computer does not detect USB media to boot, it will take over as the hard disk.

– USB: If you are using a USB drive or hard drive, this is where its name will appear. In this example, it is in third position behind the hard disk, so you have to put it in the first position instead of the DVD drive.

This couldn’t be simpler. Simply go to the first position, press enter, select your USB device and validate your selection with the enter button.

Press F10 on your keyboard (or go to the exit tab) and select “Exit Saving Changes” to apply all of these new instructions.

Not all Bios are identical and as such, it is best advised that you refer to your manufacturer’s documentation or online computer forums for further guidance.

Admittedly, it’s not always easy to find help for UNetbootin since the official project from SourceForge advises that the best way to get help is to go through the website.

This is site is very basic in its appearance, but lists the latest bugs or improvements, as well as all important information regarding the UNetbootin project.

Also on this website, you will find “Ask a question” at the top right. Clicking on this will allow you to create an Ubuntu One account that grants you access to support. Currently, support is only offered exclusively in English.

It has to be said that the software itself is extremely simple and that it wasn’t really necessary to add a help section. That being said, we aim to provide you with brief tutorials for a quick and easy start with UNetbootin.

More often than not, it is the hassle of Bios settings and the requirement to give further instructions to your computer in order to boot your USB drive, rather than the hard disk.

All of this information is readily available thanks to passionate volunteers who are on hand to answer your questions via free-to-use computer forums. You’ll find everything you need in order to control the boot order settings in your Bios.

There’s bound to be one “penguin” you’ll like more than others. Give yourself the chance to be tempted by a Linux release that can be booted on a simple USB drive.

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  • Misc

A CD image is the exact representation of the data on a CD in anormal computer file, that can e.g. be transmitted over theInternet. CD burning programs can use the image files to make realCDs.

In Debian, we use the term CD image as a common way todescribe a range of things, many of which don't even fit on CD! Thename is old, but it has stuck. We regularly build multiple differenttypes of image:

  • Debian installer images in multiple sizes. These range from small CD-sized netinst images for quick download up to large complete sets of images designed for DVD, Blu-Ray (BD) or Dual-Layer Blu-Ray (DLBD) media.
  • Debian live images - live systems designed to be run directly from CD/DVD/USB without needing installation. See below for more details.

In many cases, these installer and live images can often be writtendirectly to USB flash drives with no CD involved;see below. Don't be put off by the name CDimage!

For a correctly written image, the .iso file must notappear on the media when you access it! Instead, you should see anumber of files and directories - in the case of a Debian installerimage, this includes adists directory and a README.html file.

The .iso format we use for our images is roughlycomparable to a .zip file: It contains other files anddirectories, and only these will appear on the final CD/DVD/USBmedium. Some archive programs allow you to unpack.iso files. Do not use this feature to create a CD from theunpacked files! The resulting medium will fail to boot because the.iso format includes special information related to bootingfrom the CD/DVD/USB, which is lost when you unpack the file. See below on howto correctly write a CD/DVD image under Linux,Windows or MacOS, or how to write an image to a USB flashdrive.

Many devices require firmware to operate. Historically, firmwarewould be built into the device's ROM or Flash memory, but more andmore often, a firmware image has to be loaded into the device by adevice driver during device initialiaation.

Some firmware images are free and open-source, and some of them arenon-free, which means that you would need to add the non-free andcontrib components to your APT sources.

In some cases the installer detects the need for non-free firmwareand prompts the user to make the firmware available to the installerto complete the installation. This can happen, for example, withwireless network cards which often require non-free firmware tofunction (see ipw2200 for an example).

There are two ways to proceed here:

  • An easy method is to use an installer image that includes all non-free firmware packages directly. See for those.
  • You can also download a firmware archive for your platform and unpack it into a directory named firmware in the root of a removable storage device (USB/CD drive). You can find firmware downloads for your Debian version at When the installer starts, it will automatically find the firmware files in the directory on the removable storage and, if needed, install the required firmware. This is documented in the Debian installer manual.

If you cannot find an answer to your question here, you can ask forhelp on one of the Debian mailing lists.In all cases, you should searchthe mailing list archives before sending mail to the lists.You can subscribeto and unsubscribefrom the lists. However, you do not need to be subscribed in orderto send mail to the lists - if you are not subscribed, ask forreplies to be CC'd to you.

Mailing lists relevant to problems with CD installation:

  • debian-cd: Discussion about the CD image creation process, available CD mirrors, problems when booting from CD, announcements of new official images.
  • debian-boot: A bit of a misnomer, this list actually covers the installation process; any problems encountered after successfully booting from CD may be more appropriate here than in debian-cd.
  • debian-live: A list for the Debian Live project, focused on development of the software that is used to build Debian Live images, but also appropriate for discussion particular to using those images.
  • debian-user: General support list for users of Debian. Focus is more on problems encountered after a successful installation, when using the system. There are also several lists for non-English speakers, in Català, Chinese, Dansk, Esperanto, Français, Deutsch, Magyar, Indonesian, Italiano, 日本語 (Nihongo), Polski, Português, Русский (Russkij), Español, Svenska, Türkçe, and Ukrainian.

Live Usb Mac Os Catalina

Today, there are nearly 300 Debianmirrors (which contain the complete Debian distribution as .deb files),but far fewer machines serving Debian CD images.As a result, the CD image servers are constantly overloaded.

Additionally, nobody is very enthusiastic about setting up moreCD servers because of the tremendous amounts of wasted bandwidth(some people keep restarting failed downloads instead ofresuming from the point where the connection was closed)and because a regular mirror is more attractive (it allowscontinuous upgrades of Debian, or using the testing/unstabledistribution instead of the stable one).

jigdo tries to makethe most out of this situation, by downloading the data for the CDimages from one of the 300 mirrors. However, these mirrors onlyhold individual .deb files, not the CD image, so some additionalmanipulation of the data is necessary to produce one big CD imagefile from the many small .deb files.

Do not be afraid to try out jigdo!The complex process of generating the CD image is completelyhidden from you - instead, you benefit from the fact that one ofthe 300 Debian mirrors is bound to be nearer and faster than anyof the CD servers.

No. First, of course you only need to download CD or DVDor BD images - the three types of images contain the samepackages.

Also, you only need the CD/DVD/BD images for your computer'sarchitecture. The architecture is the type of hardware your computeruses. By far the most popular one is the 64-bit Intel/AMD PCarchitecture, so most people will only want to get the imagesfor amd64. If your PC has an older 32-bit AMD or Intelprocessor, you will most likely need thei386 images instead.

Furthermore, in most cases it is not necessary to download all ofthe images for your architecture. The packages are sorted bypopularity: The first CD/DVD/BD contains the installation system andthe most popular packages. The second one contains slightly lesspopular ones, the third one even less popular ones, etc. You willprobably only need the first couple of DVDs (or the first BD, etc.)unless you have very special requirements. (And in case you happen toneed a package later on which is not on one of the CDs/DVDs/BDs youdownloaded, you can always install that package directly from theInternet.)

Please also read the next paragraphs to determine whether youwant/need to download network install CDs, update CDs or sourceCDs.

To quote the network install page: Anetwork install or netinst CD is a single CD which enables you toinstall the entire operating system. This single CD contains just theminimal amount of software to start the installation and fetch theremaining packages over the Internet.

If you only want to install Debian on a single machine which has afast Internet connection, the network install may be the fastest andeasiest option for you: You only download the packages that youselected for installation on your machine, which saves both time andbandwidth.

Update CDs/DVDs are CDs/DVDs which contain all the packages thatchanged between a major release version (e.g. 7.0,8.0, etc.) and a later point release of that stabledistribution. For example, if you already have the full set ofdebian-8.0.0 CDs/DVDs, you can add thedebian-update-8.2.0 disc set to turn this debian-8.0.0set into a debian-8.2.0 set.

This type of CD/DVD is intended for vendors having large amounts ofpressed versions of CDs/DVDs (which makes them cheaper thanindividually burned CDs/DVDs). If you order CDs/DVDs from such avendor, it is possible that you'll receive CDs/DVDs for a slightlyolder point release, plus some update CDs/DVDs for the latestrevision. This is a perfectly acceptable way of distributing Debian onCD/DVD.

Of course, this type of CD/DVD can also be useful to you as an end user;instead of creating the full set of CDs/DVDs for each new revision of arelease, you only need to download and burn update CDs/DVDs foryour architecture.

Note that update CDs/DVDs are not meant to boot, they just contain thepackages needed to upgrade an existing installation. If you don't havethat existing installation, then you'll need to use the normalinstallation CDs/DVDs. After the new system is booted, the updated CD/DVD can be added withapt-cdrom add.

Now, what if for some reason you do not want to download the updateCD/DVD even though you already have the full set of CDs/DVDs/BDs forthe previous revision? In this case, you should consider using jigdo's update feature: jigdo can readthe contents of the old CDs/DVDs/BDs, download only those files thathave changed for the new CDs/DVDs, and create the full set of newCDs/DVDs/BDs. Still, it will have done this by downloading only aboutthe same amount of data as for an update CD/DVD.

There are two types of images, the binary CDs that containprecompiled, ready-to-run programs, and the source CDs thatcontain the source code for the programs. The vast majority ofpeople do not need the source CDs; you should not download themunless you really have a good reason for it.

Debian has a quite strict view with regard to the licenses ofsoftware: Only software that is Free in the sense of theDebian Free SoftwareGuidelines is allowed into the actual distribution. All the other,non-free software (for example, software for which source code is notavailable) is not supported officially.

The official CDs may freely be used, copied and sold by anyone anywherein the world. Packages of the non-free category have restrictions thatconflict with this, so these packages are not placed on the officialCDs.

Sometimes, someone is kind enough to create unofficial non-freeCDs. If you cannot find any links on this website, you can tryasking on the debian-cd mailing list.

Official images are built by a member of the Debian CD team andhave undergone some testing to ensure they work. Once they have beenreleased, the images never change - if they turn out to be broken, anew set with a different version number is released.

Unofficial images can be built by anyone - CD team members, otherDebian developers or even advanced Debian users. Typically, they aremore up-to-date, but have received less testing. Some have newfeatures (e.g. installation support for new hardware), or containadditional software packages which are not part of the Debian archive.

Yes. A so-called live image (live CD), or moreprecisely, a live system, is a complete system prepared for aDVD, USB key or other medium. You do not need to install anything onthe hard drive. Instead you boot from the medium (DVD or USB key) andare able to start working on the machine right away. All programs rundirectly from the medium.

The Debian Live Project produceslive image files for a variety of system types andmedia.

Live Usb Mac Os

Only the first CD/DVD/BD in a set is bootable.

If your Debian disc fails to boot, first ensure that you havecorrectly written it to the medium - please see theexplanation above. Additionally, please check whether your BIOS isset up to boot from your optical or USB drive.

Depending on the state of support for a certain architecture,CD/DVD images are available from different places:

  • If the architecture you are looking for is officially supported by the current stable release, see the Debian on CD page for the available download options.
  • If a Debian port for an architecture exists, but has not yet been released officially, CD images may or may not be available. Again, see the Debian on CD page - in contrast to stable images, only one download option may be supported, so have a look at both the jigdo and HTTP sections.
  • For the Debian port to the GNU/Hurd, see the page about unofficial Hurd CDs.
  • Otherwise, check the Debian port pages for the architecture you are interested in.

There are no unstable full CD/DVD/BD images. Due to the factthat the packages in unstable change so quickly, it is moreappropriate for people to download and install unstable using anormal Debian HTTP mirror.

If you are aware of the risks ofrunning unstable, but still want to install it, you have a fewchoices:

  • Install testing using a netinst image, then upgrade to unstable by changing the entries in your /etc/apt/sources.list. To avoid unnecessary downloads and package upgrades, it is advisable to install a minimal testing system first and only to install most of the software (e.g. desktop environment) after the switch to unstable.
  • Use the stable installer to install a minimal stable system and then change your /etc/apt/sources.list file to use testing and do an apt-get update and apt-get dist-upgrade. Finally, install the packages you desire. This method is the most likely to work of those presented here.
  • Be a tester of the testing installer and install testing using a netinst image, then upgrade to unstable by changing the entries in your /etc/apt/sources.list. To avoid unnecessary downloads and package upgrades, it is advisable to install a minimal testing system first and only to install most of the software (e.g. desktop environment) after the switch to unstable. Then apt-get update and apt-get -u dist-upgrade - then you have a sid release.
  • Use a netboot mini.iso image. You will find it on any of the Debian mirrors under debian/dists/unstable/main/installer-*/current/images/netboot/mini.iso. During the installation choose Advanced options ->Expert install. In the step Choose a mirror of the Debian archive choose version sid - unstable.

To find out which image contains a certain file, usethe cdimage searchtool. It has knowledge of just about all the Debian CDs/DVDs/BDsproduced by Debian since the 3.0 (Woody) release, covering all theofficial releases (both older archived releases and the current stablerelease) and the current sets of daily and weekly testing builds.

Yes. Lookon cdimage.debian.orgfor the corresponding .list.gz file - it will list all thepackages and source files included in the image. For Debian Liveimages, you can find in the same directory as the image files somesimilarly named files suffixed with .packages. Download theseand then search them for the desired package name.

We only make official releases of the stable distributionwhen we think they truly deserve that name. Unfortunately, this meansthat stable releases only happen about every 2 years...

If you require more recent versions of some of the software inDebian, you can install stable and then upgrade (via the net)those parts you want to the versions from testing - it ispossible to mix software from the different releases.

Alternatively, try out the images of testing that aregenerated automatically every week. More information about testing security supportis available from the security FAQ.

If you only need newer versions of specific packages, you can alsotry the backports service, which takes packages from testingand modifies them to work on stable. This option may be safer thaninstalling the same package directly from testing.

The note at the bottom of the Debian on CD pagealways shows the version number of the latestrelease.

Detailed information on how to authenticate the signed checksumfiles containing the checksums of the ISO image files is available onthe authenticity verification page. Aftercryptographically verifying the checksum files, we can check that:

  • Checksums of the downloaded ISO image files match those found in the checksum files. Computing the checksum of the ISO image files is performed by tools such as sha512sum and sha256sum.
  • Checksums of already written optical media match those found in the checksum files. This is a slightly more difficult operation to describe.

The problem with the verification of written optical media is thatsome media types will possibly return more bytes than those found inthe ISO image. This trailing garbage is impossible to avoid with CDwritten in TAO mode, incrementally recorded DVD-R[W], formattedDVD-RW, DVD+RW, BD-RE, and also with USB keys. Therefore, we need toread exactly the same number of sectors of data from the media as arefound in the ISO image itself; reading any more bytes from the mediawill alter the checksum result.

  • The isosize program can be used to find out the appropriate amount of bytes to be read from the optical media. It shows the sector count and the sector size from the optical media, where <device> is the device file of the loaded optical media.
    $ /sbin/isosize -x <device>
    sector count: 25600, sector size: 2048
  • Then sector count and sector size are passed to dd to read the appropriate amount of bytes from the optical media and the byte stream is then piped to the appropriate checksum tool (sha512sum, sha256sum, etc).
    $ dd if=<device> count=<sector count> bs=<sector size> sha512sum
  • The computed checksum is to be compared against the corresponding checksum found in the appropriate checksum file (SHA512SUMS, SHA256SUMS, etc).

Alternatively, there is a useful helper script called check_debian_iso which can verify ISO image files andoptical media, reading the appropriate amount of bytes frommedia then computing the checksum and comparing it against thechecksum file.

  • ISO image file verification. This will compare the checksum of the debian-6.0.3-amd64-netinst.iso image file against the corresponding checksum found in the SHA512SUMS checksum file.
    $ ./check_debian_iso SHA512SUMS debian-6.0.3-amd64-netinst.iso
  • Optical media verification. This will compare the checksum of the media accessible as /dev/dvd against the checksum of debian-6.0.3-amd64-DVD-1.iso as found in the SHA512SUMS checksum file. Note that the ISO image file itself is not needed, its name is merely used to locate the corresponding checksum in the checksum file.
    $ ./check_debian_iso SHA512SUMS debian-6.0.3-amd64-DVD-1.iso /dev/dvd

Most likely, the tool you use for downloadingthe image does not have large file support, i.e. it has problemsdownloading files larger than 4 GBytes. The usual symptom forthis problem is that when you download the file, the file sizereported by your tool (and the amount of data that it downloads) istoo small by exactly 4 GB. For example, if the DVD image is4.4 GB, your tool will report a size of 0.4 GB.

Some old versions of wget also suffer from this problem -either upgrade to a version of wget which does not have thisrestriction or use the curl command line download tool:curl -C - [URL]

Note that Debian ISO images for i386, amd64 and arm64 are alsobootable from a USB key; see below.

xorrisofor all optical media types (also doable as non-root user):
xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 -eject debian-x.y.z-arch-MEDIUM-NN.iso
In order to get the full nominal speed when writing to BD-RE(i.e. without the slowdown caused by the drive's internal defectmanagement), add the option stream_recording=on.

growisofsfor DVD and BD optical media types:
growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/sr0=debian-x.y.z-arch-MEDIUM-NN.iso

wodimfor CD optical media type:
wodim -v dev=/dev/sr0 -eject -sao debian-x.y.z-arch-CD-NN.iso

For Linux, there are also the X programsBrasero,K3B andX-CD-Roast,to name a few. Note that they're all frontends to the previouslymentioned low-level burning applications.

Select the button Burn Image. Then click on Click here to select a disc image, browse and select your downloaded ISO file, check whether the settings under Properties are correct and choose Create Image.
Select the menu entry Tools - CD - Burn CD Image. In the dialog that opens, enter the path to the image in the Image to Burn field, check whether the other settings are correct, then click on Start.
After the program has started, click onSetup and choose the HD settings tab. Copy the Debian CDimage to one of the directories that are displayed in the table. (Ifthe table is empty, enter the path of a directory you want to use fortemporary storage, and click on Add.) Click on OK toexit the setup. Next, select Create CD and then WriteTracks. Choose the Layout tracks tab, select the linedisplaying the image filename and click on Add, then click onAccept track layout. Finally, click on Write tracks.

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On recent versions of Windows, this can be done nativley byright-clicking the ISO and selecting 'Burn image to disk (or similar)'

This might be a little problem on older versions of Windows, asmany Windows image-burning programs use their own formats for CDimages. To burn the .iso images you will most likely have touse a special menu. Look for options like ISO9660 file,Raw ISO image or 2048 bytes/sector. (Note: otherbytes/sector values are fatal!) Some programs do not offer thesechoices; use another burning program instead (ask a friend orcolleague). Here is some information about how to write CD images withspecific products:

ImgBurn (Freeware)
There are screenshots of how to write an image to CD/DVD
CDBurnerXP Pro (Freeware)
The process of writing an .iso image is described in the program's manual.
Roxio Easy-CD Creator
From the File menu, choose Create CD from image.... Then select the .iso file type, and the correct image. This opens up the CD creation setup GUI, from there ensure that all the information for your CD-R is correct. In the Create options portion, choose Create CD; under Write method, choose Track at once and Close CD.
Nero from Ahead Software
Disable the Wizard, then select Burn Image from the File or Recorder menu. Select All Files in the file selection window if necessary. Select the .iso file, click OK in the this is a foreign file dialogue box, in case one is displayed. In the option box that opens, the defaults should be okay: Data Mode 1, Block Size 2048, Raw Data, Scrambled, and Swappednot selected, and Image Header and Image Trailer left at 0. Click OK. Under Write CD or Burn, use the default options, e.g. Write and Determine maximum speed, plus check the Finalize CD option.
Microsoft Resource Kit Tools
The command-line Resource Kit Tools are provided by Microsoft free of charge, they work with Windows 2003 and XP. Two programs to write images to CD and DVD are included, they are named Cdburn.exe and Dvdburn.exe. Usage of the programs is described in the accompanying help file - essentially, the command to be executed is something like cdburn drive: iso-file.iso /speed max

If you can provide updated information or details for otherprograms, please let us know.

The Toast program for Mac OS is reported to work fine with.iso files. You can be extra-safe by giving it thecreator code CDr3 (or possibly CDr4) and type codeiImg using e.g. FileTyper. Double-clicking on the file willthen open up Toast directly, without having to drag-and-drop or govia the File-Open menu.

Another option is Disk Utility (included with Mac OSX 10.3 and higher): After opening the Disk Utility application (inthe /Applications/Utilities folder), selectBurn... in the Image menu and choose the CDimage to burn. Ensure that the settings are correct, then click onBurn.

Another option is Disk Copy (included with Mac OSX 10.1 and higher): After opening the Disk Copy application (inthe /Applications/Utilities folder), selectBurn Image... in the Image menu and choose the CDimage to burn. Ensure that the settings are correct, then click onBurn.

Several of the Debian and Debian Live images, notably all i386,amd64 and arm64 images, are created using the isohybridtechnology, which means that they may be used in two differentways:

  • They may be written to CD/DVD/BD and used as normal for CD/DVD/BD booting.
  • They may be written to USB flash drives, bootable directly from the BIOS / EFI firmware of most PCs.

On a Linux machine, simply use the cp command, to copy animage to a USB flash drive:

cp <file> <device>

Alternatively you can also use dd:

dd if=<file> of=<device> bs=4M; sync


  • <file> is the name of the input image, e.g. netinst.iso
  • <device> is the device matching the USB flash drive, e.g. /dev/sda, /dev/sdb. Be careful to make sure you have the right device name, as this command is capable of writing over your hard disk just as easily if you get the wrong one!
  • bs=4M tells dd to read/write in 4 megabyte chunks for better performance; the default is 512 bytes, which will be much slower
  • The sync is to make sure that all the writes are flushed out before the command returns.

Additionally to the method above for Linux systems, there is also the win32diskimager program available, which allows writing such bootable USB flash drives under Windows. Hint: win32diskimager will apparently only list input files named *.img by default, while the Debian images are named *.iso. Change the filter to *.* if you use this tool.

Please note, that Debian advises not using unetbootin for this task. It can cause difficult-to-diagnose problems with booting and installing, so is not recommended.

There is no obligatory way of labeling. However, we suggest youuse the following scheme to ensure interchangeability:

Debian GNU/{Linux Hurd kFreeBSD} <version>[<revision>]
Official {<architecture>} {CD DVD BD}-<number>

For example:

Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.3
Official amd64 DVD-2

Debian GNU/kFreeBSD 6.0.3
Official i386 Netinst CD

If you have enough space, you can also add the codename to thefirst line, as in: Debian GNU/Linux 6.0.3 Squeeze.

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Note that you are allowed to use the Officialdesignation only on CDs the image of which has achecksum that matches the one from thejigdofiles of official releases.Any CD that has no matching checksum (e.g. your own creations) must beclearly labelled as Unofficial, for example:

In the case of official weekly snapshots, version numbers like6.0.3 should not be used to avoid confusion with releasedDebian versions. Instead, label the image with a codename likeetch or a distribution name like testing. Also addSnapshot and the date of the snapshot to help identify it:

Debian GNU/Linux etch
Official Snapshot alpha Binary-2

There is no official layout for the cover, back and label of aDebian CD/DVD/BD, but a number of people have produced nice-lookingimages. Please see the separate artworkpage.

Some older images are available from the archivesection on For example, you might want to tryout older images if you need support for a certain (sub)architecturewhich has been dropped for a newer release.

Note that when you install using a really old CD/DVD (pre 4.0,Etch), the contents of /etc/apt/sources.list will referencethe current stable Debian release by default. This means thatany upgrade over the net will upgrade to the current stablerelease.

If you want to install Debian on a large number of machines andthen keep all these installations up-to-date (e.g. security updates),installing from optical media is not ideal, but then neither isinstalling via the Internet, because the packages will have to bedownloaded again for each machine. In this case, you should set up alocal cache, the three options being:

  • Make disc contents available via HTTP: Download the images, then make their contents available to your LAN on a local mirror. The individual machines can use this mirror as if it were a regular Debian server. For example, if the contents of a CD are available under the URL, machines in the local network can use the packages from the CD with the following line in their /etc/apt/sources.list:
    deb stable main contrib
    A different URL and a separate entry in sources.list is necessary for each CD.
  • Instruct your HTTP proxy to cache .deb files: Configure the proxy to keep .deb files for a long time, then set http_proxy in your environment on each machine to point at the cache, and use apt's HTTP acquisition method.
    This gives you most of the benefits of running a mirror, with none of the admin hassle. Since you can set limits on the proxy's disk usage, it works even for sites with limited disk space, and it has the advantage over mirroring that you only download those packages you install, which saves bandwidth. Squid can be told to keep the files by adding a line to /etc/squid/squid.conf:
    refresh_pattern*.deb$ 129600 100% 129600
  • Set up a private Debian packages mirror: Beware that the Debian archive has grown to a tremendous size! Refer to the mirroring page for details.

Installing on a large number of machines can be tricky.Fully automaticinstallation (FAI), which is also available as a Debianpackage, may help you with this task.

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Apart from a local Debian mirror, youalso need plenty of disc space. The image creation scripts arepackaged in the debian-cd package. However, it is usually abetter idea to use the latest code from git. (Still, you should have alook at the package's dependencies to ensure you have all thenecessary tools.)

To get the latest git version, make sure you have gitinstalled. From an empty directory, give the following command:

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git clone

Should you try to use the scripts, check thedebian-cd mailing listarchive for solutions to the questions that will inevitablyshow up. :-)

The necessary steps to set up your debian-cd image mirror and keepit up to date are described on a separatepage.

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We don't store/serve the full set of ISO images for all architectures,to reduce the amount of space taken up on the mirrors. You canuse the jigdo tool to recreate the missing ISOimages instead.

From the makers of UNetbootin: HabitLab, a tool to help you waste less time online (for Chrome)
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UNetbootin allows you to create bootable Live USB drives for Ubuntu and other Linux distributions without burning a CD.

You can either let UNetbootin download one of the many distributions supported out-of-the-box for you, or supply your own Linux .iso file.


UNetbootin can create a bootable Live USB drive

It loads distributions either by downloading a ISO (CD image) files for you, or by using an ISO file you've already downloaded.

Using UNetbootin

Select an ISO file or a distribution to download, select a target drive (USB Drive or Hard Disk), then reboot once done. If your USB drive doesn't show up, reformat it as FAT32.

If you used the 'USB Drive' install mode: After rebooting, boot from the USB drive. On PCs, this usually involves pressing a button such as Esc or F12 immediately after you turn on your computer, while on Macs, you should hold the Option key before OSX boots.

If you used the 'Hard Disk' install mode: After rebooting, select the UNetbootin entry from the Windows Boot Menu.

Supported Distributions

UNetbootin has built-in support for automatically downloading and loading the following distributions, though installing other distributions is also supported:

UNetbootin can also be used to load various system utilities, including:

Installing Other Distributions Using UNetbootin

Download and run UNetbootin, then select the 'disk image' option and supply it with an ISO (CD image).

UNetbootin doesn't use distribution-specific rules for making your live USB drive, so most Linux ISO files should load correctly using this option. However, not all distributions support booting from USB, and some others require extra boot options or other modifications before they can boot from USB drives, so these ISO files will not work as-is. Also, ISO files for non-Linux operating systems have a different boot mechanism, so don't expect them to work either.


Distribution X isn't on the list of supported distributions, will it work?

» Maybe, see Installing Other Distributions Using UNetbootin.

UNetbootin isn't able to download the distribution, what should I do?

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Download the ISO straight from the website, then provide it to UNetbootin via the diskimage option.

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My USB stick isn't booting, what should I do?

Reformat the USB drive as FAT32, then use UNetbootin again to put your distribution on the USB stick.

My USB stick/hard drive isn't detected, what should I do?

Reformat the USB drive as FAT32, then use UNetbootin again. If it still isn't showing up, use the targetdrive command line option.

How do I use UNetbootin from the command line?

» See UNetbootin Command Line Options.

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How does UNetbootin work, and what does it do?

» See How UNetbootin Works.

» See USB Drive and Hard Disk Install Modes.

Where can I report bugs, submit patches, etc?

First, make sure you are using the latest version available on this website.

» See Github Issues to file a bug report.

» See Github Pull Requests to submit a patch.

Does UNetbootin have any spyware, viruses, trojans, or other malware?

No; though some anti-virus products may raise 'Trojan.generic' warnings due to the auto-uninstall feature, these are false positives. Just make sure you obtain UNetbootin from this site, not some shady third-party source. If you're absolutely paranoid, you can check the source code and compile it yourself.

What translations are available, and how can I use them?

A number of translations are included in the latest UNetbootin release. See the Translations Page for the status of each.

If a translation corresponding to your system's native language has already been included into UNetbootin, it should automatically load the corresponding translation. Alternatively, you can force the language to use via the lang=es command-line option, where you substitute es with the the 2-letter ISO 639-1 code for your language.

Can I help translate?

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If you'd like to help translate this website, join the project on Transifex, then edit translations either on this website or on Transifex.

If you'd like to help translate the UNetbootin program itself, please use Launchpad Translations. If you are new to Launchpad, you will first have to join the corresponding Ubuntu Translators group for the language you intend to translate. For information on using the Launchpad Translations system, see the translations help page.

Elementary Os Live Usb Mac

» See UNetbootin Translations

Removal Instructions (Applicable only to Hard Disk installs)

If using Windows, UNetbootin should prompt you to remove it the next time you boot into Windows. Alternatively, you can remove it via Add/Remove Programs in the Control Panel.

If using Linux, re-run the UNetbootin executable (with root priveledges), and press OK when prompted to uninstall.

Removal is only required if you used the 'Hard Drive' installation mode; to remove the bootloader from a USB drive, back up its contents and reformat it.

Uninstalling UNetbootin simply removes the UNetbootin entry from your boot menu; if you installed an operating system to a partition using UNetbootin, removing UNetbootin will not remove the OS.

To manually remove a Linux installation, you will have to restore the Windows bootloader using 'fixmbr' from a recovery CD, and use Parted Magic to delete the Linux partition and expand the Windows partition.

Where's the source code, and how can I compile or modify it?

Source code is on Github, though you may prefer a tarball of the latest release.

» See Compiling UNetbootin.

» See UNetbootin Command Line Options.

» See Building a UNetbootin Plugin.

» See Using a UNetbootin Plugin.

» See Building a Custom UNetbootin Version.

» See List of Custom UNetbootin Versions and Plugins.


UNetbootin was created and written by Geza Kovacs (Github: gkovacs, Launchpad: gezakovacs, contact info).

Translators are listed on the translations page.

UNetbootin is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) Version 2 or above. Site materials, documentation, screenshots, and logos are licensed as Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike 3.0.

Other open-source projects from the creators of UNetbootin


A Chrome extension to help you waste less time online (on sites like Facebook, Youtube, etc) by experimenting with different interventions (news feed blockers, comment hiders, and more) to find the ones that work best for you.
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